Ontology means the nature of existence or the determinants of the nature of existence. It is the researchers’ knowledge (what he or she believes) that determines the nature of existence, not the things being researched. Thus, a researcher’s acceptance or rejection that a phenomenon has a certain shape, size, and color depends on the type of knowledge or believe which influence the researcher’s view of the phenomenon. Therefore, no account of any phenomenon is value free even though objectivity remains the criteria to judge the worth of any research paper.
Epistemology means the method that applies to any scientific investigation. It answers the obvious question; why do you prefer one method than the alternative methods that exist in a particular discipline or field of study?
An Aim is what you want to achieve from a certain research endeavor. Your aim should direct you to formulate clear research questions and locate data for your research. Without an aim, a researcher will achieve close to nothing. A paper without a clear aim has no meaning! You must find an aim to enable you to put forward a logical argument. Otherwise, your paper will become aimless.
A Puzzle is a hypothetical question that leads a researcher into the investigation of the nature of a phenomenon whose nature is unknown.
A Research question means a fundamental question that leads to an inquiry of a given phenomenon, whether known or unknown. It is an overarching question (s) in which the entire research processes draw threads that link one part into the other
Phenomena are things that can be observed in the world through which researchers gain knowledge to understand the world. Thus, a phenomenon is something that a researcher set out to investigate its nature of existence.